Treatment of ALL is principally chemotherapy to reduce, and in most cases, eliminate the leukemic clone.
This treatment, unfortunately, also causes intense side effects on normal hematopoiesis. After chemotherapy treatments, for periods of one to multiple weeks, the child will have bone marrow aplasia with varying degrees of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia. The child is therefore susceptible to potentially serious infections and/or bleeding.
Norway follows the NOPHO ALL 2008 protocol (Nordic Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology). Patients are separated into 3 intensity groups:
- Standard risk
- Intermediate risk
- High risk
In principle, the treatment has the same staging in all risk groups:
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
- Control the disease on a hematological, cytogenetic, and molecular level