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Metastatic patterns of esophageal cancer

Direct infiltration

The tumor can grow into the mediastinum, possibly to the trachea, to the right bronchus, or heart.

When infiltrating the pleura, the tumor can spread on the surface of the pleura.

Hematogenic spreading

The tumor cells spread first to the liver and lungs, but skin and other organs can also be affected.

Lymphatic spreading

The tumor cells can spread to lymph nodes in the upper abdomen, mediastinum, and cervically.

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