- Carcinoma metastasis, including metastasis from testicular cancer
- Extragonadal germinal cell-tumors
- Adenomas, for example in the thyroid
- Infections with enlarged lymph nodes (mononucleosis and throat infection)
- Lateral neck cysts
If there is bone marrow involvement, there are gradual transitions between certain subgroups of malignant lymphomas (small lymphocytic lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma) and leukemias with equivalent cell types.