- Carcinoma metastasis, including metastasis from testicle cancer
- Extragonadal germinal cell tumors
- Adenomas, for example in the thyroid
- Infections with enlarged lymph nodes (mononucleosis and throat infection)
- Lateral neck cysts
If there is bone marrow involvement, there are gradual transitions between certain subgroups of malignant lymphomas (lymphocyte lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma) and leukemias with equivalent cell types.