In most cases, the etiology of lymphoma is unknown, but research shows some possible etiological factors.
- Microbes (viruses, bacteria)
- Infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria is the cause of MALT lymphoma in the gastric ventricle.
- The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is incorporated into the genome in subgroups of HL, but does not necessarily cause the disease.
- Impaired immune system
- HIV infection
- Patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment, including organ transplantation patients
- Rare genetic diseases
- Rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. There is a higher frequency of NHL in these patient groups.
- Solvents, dyes, and pesticides. Some but not all studies have shown a higher frequency of NHL in people exposed to these substances.
Despite accumulation of lymphoma in families, it has not been possible to find a specific genetic disposition.