Organs at risk
Organs at risk depend on the localization of the tumor in the abdomen and the size of the radiation fields.
Stomach and intestines
Nausea can be expected in most patients undergoing this treatment. Nausea prophylaxis should be started before the first fraction. Dyspepsia, diarrhea, and pain may be a sign of mucositis in the stomach and intestines. Ulcerations and perforation can also occur.
Cases of radiation-induced cystitis can occur. Depending on the dose to the kidneys, kidney function may be reduced and renal hypertonia may occur in the long run.
Depending on bone marrow function, a fall in counts may occur and should be measured in patients during and shortly after treatment. Regular follow-up may be necessary during this time.
Great emphasis should be placed on reducing the dose to the gonads to preserve fertility. Reliable birth control during treatment is necessary and is recommended for one year after treatment.
Irradiation under the diaphragm is associated with increased risk for later cancer in organs within or near the fields of radiation.