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Prognosis of multiple myeloma

The prognosis depends on whether the malignant melanoma is localized, regional, or metastatic at the time of diagnosis. For multiple myeloma, 5.0% are diagnosed at the local stage and the 5-year survival for localized multiple myeloma is 71%. The overall 5-year survival rate for patients with multiple myeloma during the period 2007-2013 was 49.6%.

The number of deaths is highest among people aged 75-84. Death rates have been falling on average 0.7% each year over 2005-2014.

In 2014, there were an estimated 118,539 people living with myeloma in the United States and in 2017 there are an estimated 12,590 people will die of this disease (1).

In most cases, multiple myeloma is still an incurable disease. The prognosis is very heterogenous. The median survival time was 3-5 years before the appearance of newer drugs (bortezomib, thalidomide, lenalidomide). There is indicative evidence that patients now survive significantly longer from the time of diagnosis.

Factors associated with poor prognosis are:

  • High serum level of ß2 microglobulin and C-reactive protein as well as low albumin values at the time of diagnosis
  • Atypical plasma cell morphology and high proliferative activity
  • Deletions/monosomy in chromosome 13 and 17, non-hypoploidy, and specially balanced translocations such as t(4;14), t(14;16)

 

 

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