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Diagnostics of multiple myeloma

The following conditions should be investigated with regard to multiple myeloma:

  • Bone pain, anemia, and high SR
  • Recent kidney failure or hypercalcemia

Examinations performed when multiple myeloma is a possible diagnosis:

  • Blood tests: Hb, white with with differential count, thrombocytes, albumin, magnesium, ionized calcium, creatinine, urine, ß-2 microglobulin 
  • Serum and urine electropheresis
  • Bone marrow examinations
  • X-rays of:
    • skull
    • thorax
    • total spinal column 
    • pelvis
    • long bones 

Multiple myeloma is usually confirmed by the presence of monoclonal protein (M protein/paraprotein) in serum or urine and/or findings on X-ray, as well as increased number of plasma cells in the bone marrow.

Excluding other conditions with monoclonal immunoglobulin in serum, with or without increased number of plasma cells in bone marrow and primary amyloidosis, is sometimes difficult. The condition often requires observation and repeated examinations for a final diagnosis. 

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