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Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer form in men in most contries of the western world. The disease development varies, and it can take up to twenty years from when cell changes start via prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and indolent (latent) cancer and develop into clinical cancer.

The tumor types of prostate cancer differ in levels of malignancy. Therefore, the treatment schemes differ from no treatment to comprehensive multimodal treatment. To achieve optimal treatment results, it is important that these patients are evaluated by multidisciplinary teams including an urologist, oncologist, radiologist, and pathologist.

During the last 10–20 years, PSA, or prostate specific antigen, has been used for early detection of prostate diseases, including cancer. This has often led to detection of cancer at earlier stages during the course of the disease. The PSA level, measured by a blood test, is often high in the presence of prostate cancer. However, a high PSA reading is not specific for cancer.

There are many controversial aspects in the treatment of prostate cancer.  One of the questions is whether to detect the disease early by PSA-screening or whether the disease’s natural, untreated course is benign enough that curative treatment of early cancer with it’s subsequent serious side effects is unethical.


Prostate cancer is currently the most common form of cancer among men in Norway. In 2013 there were 4836 new prostate cancer cases diagnosed in men. Cancer Registry statistics show a continously increasing incidence. The increase in the number of confirmed prostate cancer cases is due mainly to the introduction of PSA measurements during the 1980-90's and increasing average life expectancy in the population.

Internationally, Norway is among the countries with the highest incidence and mortality rate of prostate cancer.


Age-specific incidence of prostate cancer, 2009–2013.

Source: Cancer Registry of Norway



Incidence of prostate cancer, 1954–2013.

Source: Cancer Registry of Norway

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