Typing, grading, and specification of a tumor is a tedious process that is crucial for the choice of treatment method and the prognosis of the patient. The diagnosis is most often made on biopsies from the prostate, but can also be made by coincidence during a transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) performed for therapeutic purposes on patients with incontinence problems.
Pathologists play a key role in diagnosing prostate cancer, since they classify and grade the tumor, determine the extent, and whether there is infiltration of pericapsular tissue, vessels or seminal vesicals. It must also be investigated whether the capsule is intact and if there is tumor present in the resection margins. This is of significant value for the follow-up schedule with PSA testing, and for assessing if the patient will need additional treatment. A positive correlation between MRI findings and macroscopic and microscopic findings is usually present only with large tumors .
The primary cancer diagnosis must always be verified by at least two pathologists.