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A. Kathrine Lie MDPathologistOslo University HospitalNorway
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The criteria used by pathologists to determine malignancy are:
Small foci with carcinoma must be confirmed with with immunohistochemical techniques. When there the tumor grows invasively, there is loss of basal cells and the basal cell markers, 34BE12 and p63 , are lost. The marker, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemace (AMACR/p504s), is upregulated in prostate carcinoma , and can be detected with immunohistochemical techniques.
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