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Etiology of testicular cancer

There are no known causes of testicular cancer, however, some risk factors are known.
  • Congenital deformities 
    • Cryptorchism. Two to four percent of all boys with cryptorchism will develop testicular cancer later in life. The risk increases significantly if the condition is not surgically corrected by puberty. In 5-20% of cases, the tumor develops in a normal descended testicle (3).
    • Gonadal dysgenesis. Different mutations in the division of sex chromosomes, with and without intersex conditions, increases the risk for developing tumors from germ cells from the sex cord-stromal cells.
  • Hereditary disposition
    • Familial accumulation occurs. The risk for testicular cancer increases 2-4 fold when the father has been diagnosed and 8-10 fold if the brother has the disease (5).
  • Infertility
  • HIV infection
    • It has recently been reported that testicular cancer occurs more often in men infected with HIV (3).
  • Environment 
    • In the last two decades, the incidence has increased significantly with respect to geographical differences, which has led to the presumption of environmental conditions as a contributing factor for testicular cancer. This environmental influence occurs early in utero. Hormonal factors have also been suspected, but the etiologic association is most likely complex and not fully understood.

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