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Metastatic patterns of testicular cancer

For both seminoma and nonseminoma testicular cancer, metastasis occurs primarily to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and subsequently further along the thoracic duct. Spreading can also occur hematogenically, especially for nonseminomas.

About 20% of patients having seminoma tumors have metastases at the time of diagnosis, most often lymph node metastases to the retroperitoneum and/or the supraclavicular region (4).

Nonseminomas often display rapid spreading and about 50% of patients have metastases at the time of diagnosis (4).

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