Treating testicular cancer includes surgery, chemotherapy, and some radiation therapy. Treatment requires a close collaboration between the oncologist, urologist, pathologist, and radiologist. Choice of treatment depends on whether the cancer is seminoma or nonseminoma, the stage of the disease, and the extensiveness. Additionally, the level of tumor markers AFP and HCG are critical for the choice of treatment.
All patients with testicular cancer will undergo an orchiectomy before another treatment is initiated.
After an orchiectomy, supplementary treatment may be necessary in the form of chemotherapy or radiation. For localized relapse or few regional metastases, supplementary surgery or radiation may be an alternative. Patients with nonseminoma or retroperitoneal node metastases will undergo a routine retroperitoneal node dissection 4-6 weeks after chemotherapy.
For stage I seminoma and nonseminoma with a low-risk profile, there is no treatment after an orchiectomy except for follow-up.